There are several well-known solutions for the utilization of the energy of water: hydro power plants, run-of-the-river power plants with or without dam, tidal power plants, wave power plants, water mills, pumped storage.
Hydro power plant is a kind of power plant which utilizes the kinetic energy of water. The energy produced from water is a renewing energy source which does not pollute the environment, and does not produce carbon dioxide, or other gases that may evoke greenhouse effect.
The power is most commonly extracted from water by damming a river and using water turbines or electric generators. Then the produced energy is transmitted in the form of electric energy.
The produced energy depends on the volume of water and on the difference in height between the source and the water’s outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. The utilization of the available head is realized by the application of special penstocks and turbine constructions.
The two main equipments of the hydro power plant are the turbine and the generator.
The two basic types of power plants are the high-pressure (or high-fall) plant which utilizes the big height distance, and the low-pressure (or low-fall) run-of-the-river plant which utilizes the kinetic energy of the flowing river.
The facility to be established requires a preliminary feasibility study and environmental impact study which need to be consulted with and approved by the authorities.
The main factors to be examined when making a feasibility study for a hydroelectric power plant:
• sound effects (noise, vibration)
• biological aspects
• risk related to utilization
• aesthetic considerations, harmony with the surroundings
Pump storage hydro power plants:
Pump storage hydro power plants actually make for the storage of energy. This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations, releasing water from the higher reservoir to the lower through a water turbine. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.
Further advantages of hydro power plants:
• 150 years’ life expectancy
• The produced power may easily and quickly be regulated, thus continuously applicable in both peak/off-peak periods which stabilizes the electric network supply,
• Independent of weather conditions which means almost 100% availability, as opposed to solar and wind energy utilization,
• Clean, stable and environment-friendly energy source,
• Ensures high energy efficiency,
• Low operational and maintenance costs.
Our company undertakes the following services related to hydro power plant establishment:
• complete electric design
• Professional consultancy